Cosmological Argument

Below are a couple of variations of the cosmological argument. These arguments are logically sound deductive arguments. Meaning that if the premises stand, then the conclusion naturally follows.

Leibnizian Cosmological Argument

Developed by G. W. F. Leibniz (1646–1716)

  1. Anything that exists has an explanation of its existence, either in the necessity of its own nature or in an external cause.
  2. If the universe has an explanation of its existence, that explanation is God.
  3. The universe exists.
  4. Therefore, the universe has an explanation of its existence. (from 1, 3)
  5. Therefore, the explanation of the existence of the universe is God. (from 2, 4)

Kalam Cosmological Argument

Developed by al-Ghazali (1058–1111)

  1. Whatever begins to exist has a cause.
  2. The universe began to exist.
  3. Therefore, the universe has a cause.

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