Below are a couple of variations of the cosmological argument. These arguments are logically sound deductive arguments. Meaning that if the premises stand, then the conclusion naturally follows.
Leibnizian Cosmological Argument
Developed by G. W. F. Leibniz (1646–1716)
- Anything that exists has an explanation of its existence, either in the necessity of its own nature or in an external cause.
Kalam Cosmological Argument
Developed by al-Ghazali (1058–1111)
- Whatever begins to exist has a cause.
- The universe began to exist.